Tag Archives: glossarybuilding

GB #3

For this third glossary building, I have read about food. As I was reading about added sugars, I learned that people consume lots of added sugars without realizing it. The article I read also state that overconsumption of sugar is not good for people’s health. This article I read Added sugar is hiding in 74% of packaged foods, it says that a lot of the food we eat contains sugar and that it is hard to see it on the food label as there are 61 names for sugars. Therefore, it is hard for people to know how much they are consuming.  Even healthy looking food can contain lots of sugar according to the article. Also, I have seen the word “processed foods” a lot and what I read about processed foods surprised me because when I thought of processed foods, I thought differently than what the word really means according to the article What is a Processed Food? You Might Be Surprised!

One of the words I found that I think consumers should know is added sugars. According to sugar science, added sugar means specifically any sugar added during preparation of foods, in the processing plan, and or at the table. Many of us eat added sugar because it is everywhere. Usually whenever I look at the food label, I often see “added sugar”.  As I was going through the PowerPoint, I saw this acronym GRAS. I did not know what it was so I searched it. This acronym stands for Generally Recognized as Safe. This is used in the food industry a lot as they have to determine which food is safe and what not. According to the U.S. Food & Drug Administration, use of food substance can be generally recognized as safe through scientific procedures. There are other ways to determine when food substance can be GRAS. The last word I chose is processed foods because I think it will be helpful for consumers to know what it really means. Also, it will be nice to know what exactly are processed foods. I have heard of this word many times; however, something else came in mind. When I heard “processed foods”, I thought of junk food or something sweet like snacks. However, I found out that processed foods means that any little change made before it is consumed. I was surprised but also glad to know this information. Drying, cooking, preserving with salt, washing and packaging vegetables is consider processed foods and many other form is consider processed foods according to the article What is a Processed Food? You Might Be Surprised! Basically lots of foods are consider processed if not most.

Added sugars: “Any sugar added in preparation of foods, either at the table, in the kitchen or in the processing plant. This may include sucrose, high fructose corn syrup and others. ” (SugarScience)

GRAS: Stands for Generally Recognized as Safe. Food industry use this to determine safe and unsafe foods.

Processed Foods: “Food processing is any deliberate change in a food that occurs before it’s available for us to eat. It can be as simple as freezing or drying food to preserve nutrients and freshness, or as complex as formulating a frozen meal with the right balance of nutrients and ingredients. ” (What is a Processed Food? You Might Be Surprised! )



“Glossary.” SugarScience.UCSF.edu, 6 Oct. 2014, http://sugarscience.ucsf.edu/glossary.html#.Wgp0SZN94_U

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. “Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS).” U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/gras/.

“What is a Processed Food? You Might Be Surprised!” Understanding Our Food Communications Tool Kit, Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

( http://www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/what-is-a-processed-food.pdf )


Glossary Buliding #4

The beauty industry makes $160 billion a year globally. People will do strange things to pursue the ideal of beauty. From using Preparation H to reduce eye wrinkles to washing your hair with beer to add volume.

Beauty products are full of harmful chemicals. Parabens are widely used as a preservative in beauty products and prevent the growth of mold and bacteria. Parabens are used in products such as shampoos, shaving products, moisturizers and/or makeup. Studies have linked parabens to an increased risk of breast cancer. Other experts have stated that when parabens are combined with other chemicals commonly found in beauty products they can become and dangerous carcinogen.

Another chemical commonly found in beauty products such as fragranced lotions, body wash, hair care products and nail polish are phthalates. These are known endocrine disruptors. This chemical can also be found in children’s toys, plastic packaging, and medical tubing. Some studies have also shown potential reproductive harm.

There is a disturbing and toxic beauty product marketed to women with darker skin tones, skin bleaching cream. Skin bleaching or skin lighting cream is a 10-billion-dollar market for American and European companies. Most of the individual ingredients found in these creams are banned throughout America and Europe due to health risks. But due to loopholes, these companies can still sell the cream itself. Long-term use of the product can increase the risk of skin cancer from sun exposure. WebMD warns about the potential risks of absorbing the steroids found in skin lighting creams. The site also states that is can cause an untreatable skin discoloration known as ochronosis.  Dermatologists have reported treating many severe side effects from these products.

Parabens: a preservative used in beauty products to prevent the growth of bacteria and mold.

Phthalates: commonly used in the manufacture of plastics to make them stronger and more flexible.

Skin bleaching cream: a beauty product which reduces the melanin pigment in the skin.

Glossary Building #3

I feel like an important subject often left out of health discussion is pets. Pets are considered family in many American households. For me, and many others, pets serve as important health supports. Service Animals and Emotional Support Animals are great assistive aids for people with disabilities.

Service animals are dogs who have been trained to perform certain tasks which assist their owner in everyday living. This can include guiding the blind, pulling a wheelchair and/or reminding their owner to take medication. Service animals are protected under the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) which allows owners to bring their service dog into places used by the public such as hospitals and restaurants.

Assistance Animals, also known as Emotional Support Animals (ESA)  are not formally trained and can include many different animals such as cats, reptiles, and birds. ESA’s are typically used by those with mental health issues. I am personally a big advocate for the use of pets in therapy and I feel like they should be utilized more. One of my cats is legally considered an ESA who has, in my opinion, saved my life. To obtain an ESA, you need a note from a mental health professional. Although I feel that pets should be used more in health treatment, we need more regulations in place, as there has been a recent trend of people abusing the current ones. There is currently a large online market, where sites sell phony ESA certification papers and advertise phone consultations from a ‘medical expert,’ so a consumer can easily obtain the required note.

ESA’s and Service Animals are protected under The Fair Housing Act and the Air Carrier Access Act. The Fair Housing Act requires a rental company to accept the animal regardless of their pet policy, as ESA’s and Service Animals are not legally considered pets, they are assistive aids. It also waives any fees normally associated with pets such as pet rent or pet deposit. The Air Carrier Access Act requires an airline to allow pets onboard the flight. It also waives any travel fees that typically apply to pets.


Service Animal: a dog who has received special training to perform specific tasks for people with disabilities.

Emotional Support Animal: assistive aids used by those with disabilities.

Americans with Disabilities Act: regulations put in place on bossiness and local/state governments to protect those with disabilities and to ensure equal opportunity.

Air Carrier Access Act: regulations which prevent discrimination in transportation services.

The Fair Housing Act: federal regulations put in place to protect a buyer or renter from discrimination.

Glossary Building #2

While writing a report on organic farming, I ran into a big issue, organic was typically defined by what it was not, rather than what it was. When something is defined almost exclusively by what it is not, the term loses sight of its true nature. We see organic as a product or label, but it originally emerged from a multi-disciplinary perspective on our food system, including philosophers, ecologists, consumer groups, and agriculturalists.  Organic, at its core, is a food system philosophy which emphasizes human health and clean environmental practices.

The main form of food production today is conventional farming or industrial agriculture. Where organic farming is concerned with stability, the safety of the environment and human health. Conventional farming is about producing things faster and cheaper, without paying attention to negative consequences. Conventional farming utilizes large amounts of chemicals, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and intensive agriculture practices, all of which have been shown to harm human and/or environmental health.

Pesticides are a key aspect of conventional farming, they kill bugs and other vermin that would otherwise harm the crops. In 2007, the EPA found that the US generated 1 billion tons of pesticides, 80% of this was from conventional farming. Pesticides are incredibly harmful to both human and environmental health. Pesticides have been linked with the declining bee population, without bee’s many crops humans rely on for survival will die out. Some countries are making great strides in saving the bees, today the UK announced that it is banning all insect harming pesticides.

Organic Farming: A substance practice focused on stability, enhancement of biodiversity, soil fertility, environmental conservation and improving human health. It does not allow the use of pesticides, synthetic chemicals, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics or growth hormones.
Conventical Farming: A substance strangury that uses pesticides, herbicides, genetically modified organicism’s, monocropping, antibiotics, growth hormones, heavy irrigation and heavy tillage as a means of food production.
Pesticide: A chemical designed to kill or control plant and animal life. These include herbicides (to kill plants), insecticides (to kill insects), fungicides (prevent mold/mildew) and disinfectants (control bacteria).

GB #2

As I was reading about debt, I thought of how many students are taking out loans to pay for their education. In this article, The Top 10 Student Loan Tips for Recent Graduates, there were a lot of useful information that could be helpful for students. In this article, I found a lot of terms that I thought would be important for people to know and especially to those who are borrowing loans. I also read this article called Debts and Deceased Relatives; it was interesting and useful information about relatives’ debts and what happens after they die. What happens once you die and you still owe a lot of money? Does your family have to pay for you?

I have found a lot of terms that I think are important to know. The first one I found to be an important word to know is forbearance. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, this word means refraining from something such as obligation, debt, or right. Forbearance allows students to postpone their payment or possibly reduce it. The second word I found is debt collector. A debt collector is a person or company that collects money that’s owed to others and in particular if the debts are past-due according to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. According this this article Debts and Deceased Relatives, usually family members aren’t obligated to pay the deceased person’s debts unless their name is on the will. The estate of the deceased person should pay the unpaid debts according to the article. The third term is delinquent. According to Dictionary.com, delinquent means failing to fulfill an obligation or something that’s overdue. According to The Top 10 Student Loan Tips for Recent Graduates, delinquent is when a person fails to pay and it can lead to default. When a person goes into default, their credit score is ruined, government can seize their tax refunds, the amount of money a person owes increases a lot and leads to other problems.

  • Forbearance:  a refraining from the enforcement of something (such as a debt, right, or obligation) that is due  (Merriam-webster.com)
  • Debt Collector:  A person or company that collects debt owed to others ( Consumer Financial Protection Bureau)
  • Delinquent: failing in or neglectful of a duty or obligation or something that’s overdue (Dictionary.com)










Glossary Building #1

Prior to entering the public health field, I believe that the FDA conducted independent testing to determine if products were safe. Sadly, this is not the case, the FDA relies on data provided by the company or manufacturer. The FDA approval has three levels of evaluation: class 1 (high-risk), class 2 (moderate-risk) and class 3 (low-risk). Class 1 products are under the heaviest amount of review and are typically new medical devices that are not like anything on the market. Class 2 includes items which are like other already approved items on the market. Items determined as class 3 does not require any evaluation by the FDA.

There some policies in place that allow companies to avoid evaluation altogether. One such policy is: Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a policy which organizations use to avoid FDA approval for food additives. This is a largely self-regulated process, in which a ‘qualified experts’ outside the government can label and additive as a GRAS. Another way around evaluation is the 510(k) loopholes, this is a process used during class 2 evaluations where approval is granted based on similar items. The first problem with this is that as more items are approved, they will slowly move farther away from the original evaluated items. However, the scariest part about this loophole is that devices which were originally passed but later recalled due to safety issues are not atomically removed from the FDA approved list. This means that potentially harmful drugs and other health products can be approved based the recalled item.

FDA Approved: A product has been approved by the FDA as safe. Products that health consumer items such as new drugs, some food additives, cosmetics, some medical devices.

GRAS: Generally Recognized as Safe is an FDA policy that excuses food additives from evaluation if outside experts consider it safe.

501(k): A section in FDA summary screening that allows the approval of class 2 items based on similar previously approved items.

Glossary Building 3

This week we talked a lot about food and certain aspects of nutrition. I was reading through the material that Dr. Pearson provided to us, as well as finding some interesting articles of my own. I am such a foodie myself that I found this topic extremely interesting. I have been reading nutrition blogs for quite some time now and it is amazing to see all the different opinions people have. The even stranger thing is that each opinion is backed up by different scientific facts.

I decided that I wanted to find specific words many people see on a daily basis but likely are not aware of the definition. Throughout my readings I found three that I thought should be brought to peoples attention. Those three are: hydrogenated, micronutrients and protein quality. I am going to do my best to explain these words in my own understanding without the tricky language a dictionary often provides. Hydrogenated is a fancy term for adding hydrogen to something. In the food world, many oils are hydrogenated which helps make them a solid so that they are more shelf stable. In other words, stay away from hydrogenated oils!! Now, since it is all the rave right now, I am fairly certain many of you have heard of the term macronutrients. A lot of people have decided that it is a good idea to start counting “Macros” as a new diet fad. But the more important term, in my opinion, is micronutrients. These are the tiny vitamins and minerals our bodies need to function. They are called “micro” nutrients because our bodies need them in such small amounts that it is hard to see. However, they are extremely vital to our health. And lastly, lets talk about protein quality. This is basically exactly what it sounds like, the quality of a certain protein. And no, I’m not going to discuss certain protein powders to consume after your workout. A food with high protein quality just determines how bioavailable it is, how well your body will absorb the nutrients. A great example of this is eggs. Eggs have a high bioavailability and also a high protein quality, our bodies tend to absorb them very well. Now that we have a basic understanding of these terms, let look at how the dictionary defines them.


Hydrogenated: to combine or treat with hydrogen, especially to add hydrogen to themolecule of (an unsaturated organic compound).

Micronutrients: an essential nutrient, as a trace mineral or vitamin, that is requiredby an organism in minute amounts.

Protein quality: the digestibility and quantity of essential amino acids for providing the proteins in correct ratios for human consumption.

Glossary Post 2

Reading through the Early Life Matter’s readings, one of the new things I learned that stuck out to me was about the cord blood controversy. Cord blood is a source of stem cells from the blood of the umbilical cord. You would think that saving a newborn’s cord blood would be beneficial to them in the future because of the stem cells, but it most likely wouldn’t be because those cells could carry the same genetic defect that you are trying to treat. Most of the time, cord blood does not carry enough stem cells for it to be usable.

VBAC was also a new term to me, which is vaginal birth after cesarean. In some areas, women are not allowed to have a vaginal birth if their previous was a cesarean. Some doctors believe that there are risks involved with it, even though it’s still found safe to do. I have never heard of this issue in hospitals because I always thought that women had the option of what to do, as long as it wasn’t harmful to them or their baby.

The student loan elimination scam is when companies ask for money from students, making them think that it will help eliminate their loan debt. The money they ask from you is like a settlement, but they never work which makes it a scam. I thought this was interesting and relatable because this could happen to some of us after graduating.

Glossary Building 4

This Glossary Building assignment is based on 3 articles from the Food readings. First, the article “Poll Says Majority of Americans Support Menu Labeling” claims that about half of the American’s surveyed say that they would approve of calorie information on the menus at restaurants, sit down diners, grocery stores, and so on. However, it then goes on to claim that the majority of Americans feel as though they already know enough about nutrition to make an informed choice. This implies that Americans are really not informed as to what they are eating, and need to know the caloric value of foods in order to make at least a partially informed decision. Either that or Americans are in denial of how bad some foods can be, as they would prefer to focus on taste. That way, if the calories are not posted next to the food when they are out to eat or shopping, they can pretend that it is not as bad for them.

Next, we move on to vegetables. According to “Healthy Vegetables Undermined by the Company They Keep” vegetables are not healthy in the way that they are being consumed. This article claims that due to undesirable taste, many Americans cooks their vegetables in ways that add fat and salt, negating the health benefits. When eaten fresh and raw, vegetables can be a great weight loss option, however, they are typically salted or sautéed. Lastly, we talk about healthy eating. Healthy eating is thought of as eating more fresh fruits and vegetables, less red meat, and more protein. However, it should be noted that not everyone in the United States has access to all of these things. Depending on socioeconomic status and living area, some people may only have access to processed foods. The article “Healthy Eating Index” by the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) is actively working to provide these healthy options to people who do not yet have them.

  • Informed Americans: Americans who claim to know enough about nutrition, yet still want to see caloric values of the foods they are eating.
  • Vegetables: A plant or part of a plant used as food that is typically highly salted and cooked before being eaten.
  • Healthy Eating: Eating more natural and less processed foods when available.


Guthrie, J. (2014, May 5). Healthy Vegetables Undermined by the Company They Keep. Retrieved November 2, 2017, from https://consuminghealthmatters.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/healthyvegunderminedbycompanytheykeep.pdf

NCCOR. (n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2017, from http://www.nccor.org/projects/hei/

Poll says majority of Americans support menu labeling. (2014, December 31). Retrieved November 02, 2017, from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/12/31/poll-says-majority-americans-support-menu-labeling.html

Glossary Building Post – 3

From reading A Crackdown on Cheating Companies I thought contractors was a good term for this week. By definition, a contractor is an “Independent entity that agrees to furnish certain number or quantity of goods, material, equipment, personnel, and/or services that meet or exceed stated requirements or specifications, at a mutually agreed upon price and within a specified timeframe to another independent entity called contractee, principal, or project owner.2” Many companies today are calling full-time employees contractors so that they don’t have to provide medical benefits like health insurance, paid time off, sick leave or anything other benefits that a regular full-time employee would have. I think that it is important to know the difference between full-time and contractor especially if you’re trying to get the most value out of your job!

From the same article, A Crackdown on Cheating Companies, workers’ compensation is the next term. Workers comp is basically a form of insurance for employees so that in the event that they get injured on the job, the employee has a right to sue the employer for negligence3. Being 21 and not having hardly any experience with benefits let alone health insurance (under my parents), I wasn’t familiar with the term workers’ comp so I figured, maybe a lot of other people my age are also still figuring out what most of these terms are/mean.

The last word is grace period. ‘A grace period is how long you can wait after leaving school before you have to make your first payment.4’ I think this term is actually really relevant to college students because this is the time where many begin to start learning about loans and payments and how it all affects your overall credit.

Contractors: A person or company that undertakes a contract to provide materials or labor to perform a service or do a job5.

Workers’ Compensation: A form of insurance for employees so that in the event that they get injured on the job, the employee has a right to sue the employer for negligence3.

Grace Period: A grace period is how long you can wait after leaving school before you have to make your first payment4.





2 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/contractor.html

5 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/contractor

Workers Compensation


3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workers%27_compensation

Grace Period

4 https://ticas.org/content/posd/top-10-student-loan-tips-recent-graduates