Tag Archives: glossary

Glossary Building 5

Throughout the last few months, this course has acted as an insider view of a business class. I have learned many tricks of the trade in businesses and how companies can get around certain things. A good example of this it the term “greenwashing,” were companies claim to be green and practice bettering the environment when in reality, they are not. It is truly all a marketing scheme to make money and scam consumers. After my research throughout the quarter, I came across a few confusing terms I wanted to add to the glossary. One of the many that came up was particularly confusing. This word was forecast, which in my head deals strictly with weather. The two other terms I deemed necessary for my glossary are, depreciation and equity. These seem to be terminologies I see in the business world as well as everyday life that I think people should become familiar with.

Once I gained more knowledge about the business world and felt myself become a bit more comfortable with what I was learning, the terminology became easier to understand. When I first saw “forecast” being used in an article, my brain quickly assumed the author was talking about the weather for the upcoming week. Come to find out, that is a popular business termed used very frequently by companies managing for the future. This term is a planning tool that helps administer coping methods for businesses dealing with the uncertainty of the future. Forecasting relies on data from the past and present trends within the company. The next word, depreciation means a decrease in value. It is often difficult to understand and I still do not have a full grasp on the meaning quite yet. Depreciation is an accounting method used for observing assets and their value. It can also be used to allocate the number of costs a company has to spend. And lastly, I would like to talk about equity. This is another term I see used a lot that I am not totally confident in the definition. In the public health world, I am somewhat familiar with what equity means however, I know, much like forecast, it takes on a whole new definition in the business world. Equity means ownership or holding stock within a company. To explain this simply, it is the amount of money you will receive after selling your company and paying back all debts that are owed. In other words, it is how much money invested belongs to you. I think a lot of the words used in the business world can get very confusing, and some intertwine with others. We have seen that directly with forecast and equity. If I had not done research of my own, I would have gotten a very different understanding of the articles using those terms. It is very important to expand your vocabulary knowledge to understand other areas of information.



Forecast: Forecasting is the use of historic data to determine the direction of future trends.

Depreciation: Depreciation is an accounting method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life.

Equity: Ownership interest or claim of a holder of common stock (ordinary shares) and some types of preferred stock (preference shares) of a company.

Glossary Building 4

After learning about Direct-to-consumer ads, I came across a few terms I decided would be useful to add to my vocabulary list. Marketing and advertising are huge industries in the United States. Our nation brings in enormous amounts of money from advertising alone. I think it is super important to be educated in certain areas to protect consumer health. A lot of times we can be drawn in by marketing schemes to believe we need specific products and items. I know for a fact, I have purchased items because an ad lead me to think I needed it. Some of the terminologies people should be familiar with are: market segmentation, mass media, and consumer advertising.

It was difficult for me to research and learn about DTC ads because I do not have a business centered mind. A lot of the words in the articles I read were challenging to understand and grasp. Which is one of the main reasons I decided to add them to my glossary. The first one, market segmentation, is a process of creating subdivisions within large similar populations. These subpopulations have similar needs, wants and demands. This practice is designed to identify the expectations of customers. Mass media, another important term to be familiar with, is any type of communication that reaches enormous amounts of people in the hopes of returning some profit. This can be seen or heard on television, in the paper, and even on the radio. Today there are numerous places media can reach mass populations. We have so many different social media platforms as well as millions of websites where advertisements can be seen. There is a very small population that never will see an advertisement. Lastly, the term consumer advertising is another imperative expression to understand. The definition of this explains that it is a marketing strategy directly aimed towards specific populations. Products and services are provided and advertised to the public that is most likely to use them. For example, diaper companies aim their ads towards new mothers who believe they need to purchase that diaper. With the knowledge of these definitions, consumers can better protect themselves from falling into the trap of believing advertisements.



Market segmentation: The process of defining and subdividing a large homogenous market into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs, wants, or demand characteristics.

Mass media: any of the means of communication, as television or newspapers, that reach very large numbers of people.

Consumer advertising: The activity of making products or services known to the public and persuading people to buy them.

Glossary Post 3

The fiduciary rule is a new term to me, which means that financial advisers are to put their clients best interests first for their retirement savings and aren’t allowed any compensation or payments that would create a conflict of interest. I did not think that this was an issue in the industry because I assumed that financial advisers would always put the clients best interests first and there didn’t need to be a rule like this.

The student aid bill of rights is a bill that ensures that students are able to pay their monthly payments, can have affordable and quality education, rights to a affordable repayment plan, and the right to have quality customer service from their lenders. The student aid bill of rights is important to students because college can be pretty expensive nowadays. Those who want to go to college are often held back because of its costs, so they are forced to have loans that can take several years to pay off. This bill made it so that payments are 10% of the student borrowers income.

Debt collectors are the people who collects debt a deceased person owes to others. According to the Federal Trade Commission, family members are not required to pay their deceased relative’s debt. Debt collectors can only talk about the debts with the deceased one’s spouse, guardian, executor or administrator. You can protect yourself from a debt collector by sending files and a letter stating for the collector to not contact you again.

Glossary Building 5

The glossary post for this week is about illness and morality and how these are treated or enhanced. First, the article, “How Many Die from Medical Mistakes in U.S. Hospitals?” talks about how many patients have died from medical mistakes. This article was interesting in the fact that not only was the number much higher than anticipated, but also because “There’s never been an actual count of how many patients experience preventable harm. So, we’re left with approximations, which are imperfect in part because of inaccuracies in medical records and the reluctance of some providers to report mistakes,” (Allen, 2013). To show an example of possible medical negligence, the next article is called “Geography is Destiny in Deaths from Kidney Failure, Study Shows”. This article talks about how depending on what region someone with end-stage kidney disease lives in, they have a better or worse chance of survival. It then goes on to discuss which kind of dialysis is better for kidney patients and frighteningly states that “Dialysis with an AV fistula is superior to other methods and offers a dramatic survival advantage… the fact that fewer than one in five people start dialysis with a fistula is a real public health concern” (John Hopkins Medicine, 2015). It then goes on to explain that those living in New England and the Pacific Northwest have the greatest chance (1 in 5) of going on dialysis with a fistula, whereas Texas and Southern California have the lowest chance (1 in 9). This is perhaps because the New England and Pacific Northwest regions pay doctors more than the Southern United States.

Next, as many Baby Boomers are getting older and may soon be at the point of needing assisted living or to live in some kind of aging community, the next article called “Aging in Community: The Communitarian Alternative to Aging in Place, Alone” talks about aging communities. Aging in community is not a new concept, many people grew up in a neighborhood, inherited the house from their parents and died there. However, with new medical procedures used to expand the lifespan, people are living longer and not necessarily better. This leads to the invention of assisted living facilities, but these facilities can be costly, and many Baby Boomers have not saved enough money or lost money in the recession of 2007. So communities have started banding together to provide better options for those in need of assisted living. For instance, as nearly 1 in 5 women over age 55 live in poverty, one community has established “house-sharing” for these women. Allowing them to live in a house without paying the full rent. This leads to a more understanding, helpful, and less expensive environment that a long-term care facility.

  • Patient Safety: Very limited as evidenced by reports of hospital negligence and the number of medical mistakes contributing to patient deaths.
  • Equal Treatment of Patients: Unable to exist in this country due to geographical and socioeconomic differences.
  • Aging in Community: Communities banding together to help the older generations with general living requirements while costing significantly less that an assisted living facility.


Allen, M. (2013, September 20). How Many Die from Medical Mistakes in U.S. Hospitals? Retrieved November 14, 2017, from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2013/09/20/224507654/how-many-die-from-medical-mistakes-in-u-s-hospitals

Blanchard, J. (2014, April 2). Aging in Community: The Communitarian Alternative to Aging in Place, Alone. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://www.asaging.org/blog/aging-community-communitarian-alternative-aging-place-alone

Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Geography is destiny in deaths from kidney failure, study shows.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 June 2015. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150624115632.htm.

Glossary Building 3

This week we talked a lot about food and certain aspects of nutrition. I was reading through the material that Dr. Pearson provided to us, as well as finding some interesting articles of my own. I am such a foodie myself that I found this topic extremely interesting. I have been reading nutrition blogs for quite some time now and it is amazing to see all the different opinions people have. The even stranger thing is that each opinion is backed up by different scientific facts.

I decided that I wanted to find specific words many people see on a daily basis but likely are not aware of the definition. Throughout my readings I found three that I thought should be brought to peoples attention. Those three are: hydrogenated, micronutrients and protein quality. I am going to do my best to explain these words in my own understanding without the tricky language a dictionary often provides. Hydrogenated is a fancy term for adding hydrogen to something. In the food world, many oils are hydrogenated which helps make them a solid so that they are more shelf stable. In other words, stay away from hydrogenated oils!! Now, since it is all the rave right now, I am fairly certain many of you have heard of the term macronutrients. A lot of people have decided that it is a good idea to start counting “Macros” as a new diet fad. But the more important term, in my opinion, is micronutrients. These are the tiny vitamins and minerals our bodies need to function. They are called “micro” nutrients because our bodies need them in such small amounts that it is hard to see. However, they are extremely vital to our health. And lastly, lets talk about protein quality. This is basically exactly what it sounds like, the quality of a certain protein. And no, I’m not going to discuss certain protein powders to consume after your workout. A food with high protein quality just determines how bioavailable it is, how well your body will absorb the nutrients. A great example of this is eggs. Eggs have a high bioavailability and also a high protein quality, our bodies tend to absorb them very well. Now that we have a basic understanding of these terms, let look at how the dictionary defines them.


Hydrogenated: to combine or treat with hydrogen, especially to add hydrogen to themolecule of (an unsaturated organic compound).

Micronutrients: an essential nutrient, as a trace mineral or vitamin, that is requiredby an organism in minute amounts.

Protein quality: the digestibility and quantity of essential amino acids for providing the proteins in correct ratios for human consumption.

Glossary Post 2

Reading through the Early Life Matter’s readings, one of the new things I learned that stuck out to me was about the cord blood controversy. Cord blood is a source of stem cells from the blood of the umbilical cord. You would think that saving a newborn’s cord blood would be beneficial to them in the future because of the stem cells, but it most likely wouldn’t be because those cells could carry the same genetic defect that you are trying to treat. Most of the time, cord blood does not carry enough stem cells for it to be usable.

VBAC was also a new term to me, which is vaginal birth after cesarean. In some areas, women are not allowed to have a vaginal birth if their previous was a cesarean. Some doctors believe that there are risks involved with it, even though it’s still found safe to do. I have never heard of this issue in hospitals because I always thought that women had the option of what to do, as long as it wasn’t harmful to them or their baby.

The student loan elimination scam is when companies ask for money from students, making them think that it will help eliminate their loan debt. The money they ask from you is like a settlement, but they never work which makes it a scam. I thought this was interesting and relatable because this could happen to some of us after graduating.

Glossary Building 4

This Glossary Building assignment is based on 3 articles from the Food readings. First, the article “Poll Says Majority of Americans Support Menu Labeling” claims that about half of the American’s surveyed say that they would approve of calorie information on the menus at restaurants, sit down diners, grocery stores, and so on. However, it then goes on to claim that the majority of Americans feel as though they already know enough about nutrition to make an informed choice. This implies that Americans are really not informed as to what they are eating, and need to know the caloric value of foods in order to make at least a partially informed decision. Either that or Americans are in denial of how bad some foods can be, as they would prefer to focus on taste. That way, if the calories are not posted next to the food when they are out to eat or shopping, they can pretend that it is not as bad for them.

Next, we move on to vegetables. According to “Healthy Vegetables Undermined by the Company They Keep” vegetables are not healthy in the way that they are being consumed. This article claims that due to undesirable taste, many Americans cooks their vegetables in ways that add fat and salt, negating the health benefits. When eaten fresh and raw, vegetables can be a great weight loss option, however, they are typically salted or sautéed. Lastly, we talk about healthy eating. Healthy eating is thought of as eating more fresh fruits and vegetables, less red meat, and more protein. However, it should be noted that not everyone in the United States has access to all of these things. Depending on socioeconomic status and living area, some people may only have access to processed foods. The article “Healthy Eating Index” by the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) is actively working to provide these healthy options to people who do not yet have them.

  • Informed Americans: Americans who claim to know enough about nutrition, yet still want to see caloric values of the foods they are eating.
  • Vegetables: A plant or part of a plant used as food that is typically highly salted and cooked before being eaten.
  • Healthy Eating: Eating more natural and less processed foods when available.


Guthrie, J. (2014, May 5). Healthy Vegetables Undermined by the Company They Keep. Retrieved November 2, 2017, from https://consuminghealthmatters.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/healthyvegunderminedbycompanytheykeep.pdf

NCCOR. (n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2017, from http://www.nccor.org/projects/hei/

Poll says majority of Americans support menu labeling. (2014, December 31). Retrieved November 02, 2017, from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/12/31/poll-says-majority-americans-support-menu-labeling.html

Glossary Building 2

I started out researching the fiduciary rule for this weeks post prompt. Right then, I came across a word I had never heard before. It may come as no surprise, but that word was in fact “fiduciary.” I continued on reading, hoping to gain some more knowledge. I ended up coming across two more words that spark my interest, “robo-advisors” and “index funds.” Now, it needs to be stated that I am the furthest thing from having a business working mind, or anything of that sort. So, these words could be simple terms to some but to me, they are a challenge. I wrote down the three words so that I could come back to them after I finished my readings.

The articles I was reading were completed and I still did not fully understand the three terms. I knew that a fiduciary was a person that acted under the fiduciary rule. Meaning, they legally had to give appropriate financial or legal advice that would benefit their specific client at the moment, rather than benefiting themselves. I searched around and saw that my own understanding of the term was pretty spot on, but dumbed down a bit for myself. After that, I turned to robo-advisors and found that the word means almost exactly what you would think. A robo-advisor is a legitimate online system that provides financial advice with hardly any human interaction. The software was created with algorithms that manage clients assets to optimize financial success. Pretty cool, but would you trust that? I then needed to understand and identify what the term “index funds” meant. Index funds are mutual funds. These are specifically designed to watch the returns of the market, and track it. An index fund holds all of the stocks on an index, which is basically just a list of investments. This one is still a little fuzzy for me and hard to grasp but I got a better understanding of it when I did research of my own. Since Tucker’s article (in this weeks post, prompt 2) was so difficult to understand, it helped me immensely to research these terms on my own. That way it was easier for me to grasp his concepts and ideas.


Fiduciary: involving trust, especially with regard to the relationship between a trustee and a beneficiary.

Robo-Advisors: a class of financial advisor that provide financial advice or portfolio management online with moderate to minimal human intervention.

Index funds:  mutual fund with a portfolio constructed to match or track the components of a market index, such as the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500).

Glossary Building Post 3

The pregnancy industry has many faults both before, after, and during a pregnancy, one that stuck me the most was the cord blood controversy. Cord blood is blood from the umbilical cord that many families choose to have frozen in case their child has a genetic deformity or falls ill with a chronic disease. The problem with this is that if either of these things happen to the child, the defect or disease is likely to be in the cord blood, rendering the stem cells in it useless. Luckily, umbilical cords and their blood can be donated to public institutions where families will have access to them for free which may be a better and less expensive option.

The next topic is one very close to me, and I am sure many of my peers: student loans. About 70 percent of students graduating with a bachelor’s degree end up in debt, the average debt being around $28,000. This is a lot of money to be paid back for someone who is just starting their career. Therefore, former President Obama put into law a student reform that requires affordable loan payments every year, capping these payments at 10 percent of the borrower’s income. This is good for many borrowers as this gives them time to get together more money, however, it may take a longer time to pay off. The good news is that if the borrower goes into federal work, they may have their student loans forgiven by Public Service Loan Forgiveness that mandates that after ten years of qualifying payments, those working in government, nonprofit, and other public service jobs may have their remaining debt forgiven.

  • Cord blood: Blood from the umbilical cord that remains in the placenta that can be frozen for the future if the child has a disease, but will most likely be ultimately unhelpful as the child’s disease will also be in the cord blood.
  • Affordable Loan Payments: 10 percent of the borrower’s income according to Former President Obama’s student reform.
  • Public Service Loan Forgiveness: Those who work in a federal program may have their remaining student debt forgiven after 10 years of qualifying payments.