Tag Archives: glossary

Another Glossary Post

quackery:
dishonest practices and claims to have special knowledge and skill in some field, typically medicine.

health policy:

health policy can be defined as the “decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society. … They may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access to care, quality of care, and health equity.

health behavior:

combination of knowledge, practices, and attitudes that together contribute to motivate the actions we takeregarding health.

I took Intro. to Policy concurrently with this course and I feel that understanding policy, especially the health policies in our state and country, are an integral part of understanding consumer health. I also think it is important to acknowledge that our health behavior has a large impact on what we are consuming both as individuals and as a society. I also chose to define quackery, mainly because it was the first word that caught my interest in this course. Before Summer quarter had begun I was reading through different course descriptions to decide what to sign up for, and the description for this course used the word “quackery”. It is such a silly word to me but the more I learned in this course, the more I realized the quackery that occurs in the life of an every day consumer, and how destructive it is to our learning and decision making.

 

 

Glossary Post 4

For my final glossary post, I will be using vocabulary words that I found to be useful while I was doing my photovoice project research on nutrition labels.

Percent Daily Value: the %DV [Percent Daily Value] helps you determine if a serving of food is high or low in a nutrient…  are based on the Daily Value recommendations for key nutrients but only for a 2,000 calorie daily diet–not 2,500 calories. (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, n.d.)”

The percent daily value is usually the column of the nutrition label that has a percentage, next to each nutrient (except for trans fat, sugars, and a few others). It represents how much of your daily needed nutrients the food will provide if you eat according to the serving size, according to a 2,000 calorie-a-day diet.

Calories: “a unit equivalent to the large calorie expressing heat-producing or energy-producing value in food when oxidized in the body (Merriam-Webster, n.d.).”

I chose to define calories, because its definition is a little confusing. When a nutrition label lists how many calories a food has, what it is really doing is listing how many units of heat ones body will oxidize when they eat it according to the serving size.

Trans Fat: 

“There are two broad types of trans fats found in foods: naturally-occurring and artificial trans fats. Naturally-occurring trans fats are produced in the gut of some animals and foods made from these animals (e.g., milk and meat products) may contain small quantities of these fats. Artificial trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid (American Heart Association, 2017).”

For a long time, I did not know what trans fat meant. I just knew that it was the type of fat that was healthier to avoid consuming. Now I see that a huge reason for this is because it is fat that is either factory made, or produced in the guts of animals.

Sources:

Calorie. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/calorie
How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label. (2004, November). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition/ucm274593.htm#percent_daily_value
Trans Fat. (2017, March 24). Retrieved from https://healthyforgood.heart.org/Eat-smart/Articles/Trans-Fat

Glossary Post 3

Here is my third glossary post. These terms are based on consumer protection and regulation.

Sustainability Consortium: “a global non-profit organization working to transform the consumer goods industry by partnering with leading companies to define, develop, and deliver more sustainable products (The Sustainability Consortium, n.d.)”

The Sustainability Consortium is the organization that Wal-mart will share their best practices with during the process of phasing ten hazardous chemicals out of their products. I think that this is important, because there are many great environmental organizations that people don’t know about.

Retailer: “a person, shop, or business that sells goods to the public (Cambridge, n.d.).”

The definition of this word can be a little fuzzy, as it is thrown around a lot without clarification of the definition. The definition that I found is quite simple to grasp, which could be why the word is used in such a breezy fashion.

Hazardous: “involving or exposing one to risk (as of loss or harm) (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)”

I included this word for the same reason I chose the word retailer, it’s important to be aware of commonly used words, as they can eventually lose their meaning if they are just used without awareness of their definition.

Sources:

Hazardous. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hazardous

Retailer. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/retailer

 The Sustainability Consortium – Sustainable Products, Sustainable Planet. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2017, from https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/

Glossary Five

Biohacking: “The activity of exploiting genetic material experimentally without regard to accepted ethical standards.” Some hacks involve putting a small magnet in your finger, some go much farther, one man even gave himself night-vision.

Euthanasia: “The act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (such as persons or domestic animals) in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy.” This is a highly controversial topic, assisted suicide is illegal in most countries.

Autonomous vehicles: Vehicles capable of driving themselves have become a topic of road safety lawmaking since the first inception of the design. One of the main reasons this is a concern is because the car might face what is called the trolley dilemma. In the event of an accident or loss of control, the vehicle might have to decide which pedestrians survive, and which die.

Glossary Four

CRISPR:  “A gene editing technique in which CRISPR and the RNA segments and enzymes it produces are used to identify and modify specific DNA sequences in the genome of other organisms.” This technique of modifying DNA is now a serious health and ethics question being debated because CRISPR is also being tested on human cells. Bringing us to the topic of designer babies.

Designer Babies: The MIT Technology Review has reported the first testing of this method on human embryos in the US. Additionally, they report that the “three previous reports of editing human embryos were all published by scientists in China.” In order to avoid the ethical questions he did this outside the womb, and never implanted the eggs. Will this become a service we are sold in the near future?

Germline Engineering: Making CRISPR even more controversial is the long term consequences, because the changes made would be passed down. “Germ line is biologists’ jargon for the egg and sperm, which combine to form an embryo. By editing the DNA of these cells or the embryo itself, it could be possible to correct disease genes and pass those genetic fixes on to future generations.”

Glossary Post 3

Genetically Modified Organism: “Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination.”

Organic Foods: “USDA certified organic foods are grown and processed according to federal guidelines addressing, among many factors, soil quality, animal raising practices, pest and weed control, and use of additives. Organic producers rely on natural substances and physical, mechanical, or biologically based farming methods to the fullest extent possible.”

Food and Drug Administration: “The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and by ensuring the safety of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.”

Glossary Post 2

Pre-existing condition: “a health problem you had before the date that new health coverage starts.” This has been a major issue for recent health care legislation. The A.C.A. required insurance companies to accept those with these conditions, among other things.

Risk pool: “Risk pooling is also known as health insurance, which is a group of persons contributing to a common pool, usually held by a third party. These funds are used to pay for all or part of the cost of providing a defined set of health services for members of the pool.” Seeing as how different people are expected to cost the insurance company different amounts over time, customers are sorted into pools of different risk levels.

Addiction: “Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors.”

Glossary Post 6

Quarantine = separates and restricts the movement of people who were exposed to a contagious disease to see if they become sick.

Quarantine and Isolation. (2017, March 21). Retrieved July 26, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/index.html

Prevalence = is the proportion of a population who have (or had) a specific characteristic in a given time period – in medicine, typically an illness, a condition, or a risk factor such as depression or smoking.

What is prevalence? (n.d.). Retrieved July 26, 2017, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/index.shtml

Morbidity = refers to having a disease or a symptom of disease, or to the amount of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to medical problems caused by a treatment.

NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. (n.d.). Retrieved July 26, 2017, from https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?cdrid=44514

Glossary Building: Post Four

Recidivism

According to the article National Institute of Justice (2014) “Recidivism is one of the most fundamental concepts in criminal justice. It refers to a person’s relapse into criminal behavior, often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes intervention for a previous crime. Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in re-arrest, reconviction or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner’s release” (National Institute of Justice, 2014, para. 1). I chose this word because it is important to understand what it means and what it entails when dealing with criminal activity. Research has been done throughout the years to calculate and assess why recidivism is so high.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

According to Senson (2016) “CBT is a psychotherapeutic treatment administered by a therapist trained in mental health disorders and specifically in CBT. Patients typically attend a limited number of sessions that focus on a specific problem, helping the patient identify, recognize and change disturbing thought patterns and feelings that are leading to negative or destructive beliefs and behaviors” (Senson, 2016, para. 6).

I chose cognitive behavioral therapy as a glossary word because it is also an important part of consumer health in some aspects. People behave in certain ways because of their different personalities and many suffer from personality disorders. CBT is among one of those treatment methods that can help individuals with cognitive and behavioral problems.

Offender

a person who commits an illegal act.

synonyms: wrongdoer, criminal, lawbreaker, miscreant, malefactor, felon, delinquent, culprit, guilty party, outlaw, sinner, transgressor; malfeasant

a person or thing that offends, does something wrong, or causes problems.

Offender in many cases has been found to mean something other than a wrongdoer and a criminal. People often relate the word offender to a sex offender. I find this word interesting because the Washington State Department of Corrections has recently moved away from using the words offenders, inmates, convicts, and similar words. Currently the State of Washington wants the population of incarcerated individuals to be addressed as students or patients.

References

Offender. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/offender

Recidivism. (2014, June 17). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from https://www.nij.gov/topics/corrections/recidivism/Pages/welcome.aspx

Senson, A. (2016, January 06). Virtual Reality Therapy: Treating The Global Mental Health Crisis. Retrieved July 24, 2017, from https://techcrunch.com/2016/01/06/virtual-reality-therapy-treating-the-global-mental-health-crisis/

Glossary Building

Given this week’s topic about honoring choices in death, I thought I would take the opportunity to expand our personal glossaries by including a few words surrounding this topic.

ad·vance di·rec·tive
noun
  1. a written statement of a person’s wishes regarding medical treatment, often including a living will, made to ensure those wishes are carried out should the person be unable to communicate them to a doctor.
pow·er of at·tor·ney
noun

LAW
  1. the authority to act for another person in specified or all legal or financial matters.
    • a legal document giving power of attorney to someone.

     

health care agent:  A health care agent is a person you choose in advance to make health care decisions for you in the event that you become unable to do so. … A health care agent also may be called a health care proxy or surrogate or an attorney-in-fact.

http://www.webmd.com/health-insurance/tc/choosing-a-health-care-agent-topic-overview

When preparing a will or advance directive, I feel it is important to know what exactly they are and what they entail, as well as understanding that there are other people you will have to involve in these decisions. Deciding who you want and what roles you want them to play in your choices are extremely important.