Tag Archives: glossary

Glossary Post 2

For my second glossary post I’ve decided to define and discuss

  1. Epidural
  2. Pre-conception life stages
  3. Healthy People 2020

An epidural is an injection of medication that blocks the transmission of pain impulses, which can assist in making labor more comfortable and bearable for women. An epidural is injected into the lower back during labor.

Pre-conception life stages are the stages of life when individuals think about having a child for the first time or having a child again. During the pre-conception stages, individuals may have genetic histories investigated, they may stop high risk behaviors including smoking an drinking, and they may be tested for any STIs.

Healthy People 2020 is the department of health’s plan to improve health outcomes across different populations throughout the United States. Healthy People 2020 goals include improving vaccination rates and lowering the incidence rate of HIV.

Glossary Post 1

The first three terms I decided to define and discuss are

  1. The Affordable Care Act
  2. Social Ecology
  3. Evidence-Based

The Affordable Care Act was passed in 2010 under President Barack Obama. The ACA is often called Obamacare but this is a misnomer and makes the bill more partisan than it should be. The ACA ended insurance rejection due to pre-existing conditions as well as made insurance cover all forms of birth control.

Social Ecology is a social theory that accounts for social, environmental, and economic factors. The theory is often depicted as a venn diagram with each cross-over section representing different ways society can be seen- Bearable, Viable, and Equitable.

Evidence Based medicine is an approach to medical practice that emphasizes the importance of evidence and research in treatment. Evidence based medicine promotes decisions made based on evidence and research rather than beliefs of practitioners.

Glossary Post 5

Taking care of the environment has become increasingly more common over the years. Recycling bins everywhere, solar panels, gas emission standards, extra fees for plastic grocery bags, these are all examples of how going green has changed the way some Americans live. “Green” is a marketing term for any good, service, law, or policy that revolves around being eco-friendly. You may see this is restaurants that provide compostable packaging or cars that claim to use less gas and emit less emissions. Sustainability refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In other words, it means we need to take care of our resources and use them wisely, and what we do use needs to be replaced or reused. Therefore, our future generations will be able to sustain healthy lives as well.

Moral obligation, or what we think we should do. This was a new phrase to me in terms of environmental sustainability. Moral obligation refers to us knowing exactly what needs to be done to make a change or make a choice. This is something that I think we need to take into consideration more because I often find myself over-using a lot of products such as buying plastic straws or getting plastic grocery bags. I know these things contribute to pollution and environmental damage but I still buy it.

  • Green- A marketing term for any good, service, law, or policy that revolves around being eco-friendly.
  • Sustainability- Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
  • Moral Obligation- What we think we should do.

Glossary Post 4

Food has a huge impact on health consumerism which is why the labeling of food is so important. Food labels are regulated by the Food & Drug administration and are required on almost all products sold in your local grocery store. Trans fat is a type of unsaturated fat that is produced industrially by adding hydrogen to liquid oils, making them more solid. “When the Nutrition Facts label says a food contains “0g” of trans fat, but includes “partially hydrogenated oil” in the ingredient list, it means the food contains trans fat, but less than 0.5g of trans fat per serving.” Claiming to have 0g of an ingredient that is in fact in the product is considered to be a health and nutrition related claim. These are claims such as “low fat”, “fat free” “sodium free”, and “sugar free”. They make the product stand out from the rest and make it seem healthier than your other choices. While the amounts may be small, these claims do not mean the ingredient is not present in your food. Because of the confusion, the FDA enforced the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. This act is the most important piece of food labeling legislation in recent history. It creates the standard at which these claims are held at. For example, “good source of fiber” can only be used when the food contain 10%-19% of the recommended daily value.

Trans Fat- A type of unsaturated fat that is produced industrially by adding hydrogen to liquid oils, making them more solid.

Health and Nutrition Related Claims- Claims such as “low fat”, “fat free” “sodium free”, and “sugar free”.

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990- Requires nutrition labeling of most foods regulated by the FDA, and to require that all nutrient content claims and health claims meet FDA regulations.

USDA. 2013. Obesity and Other Health Concerns Lead Food Companies to Step Up Health and Nutrient Claims. Retrieved from https://consuminghealthmatters.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/healthconcernsleadtolabelclaims.pdf

Glossary Post 3

Glossary post 3 will be focusing on age and older persons. Age is inevitable, and how old a person will become is usually determined by life expectancy. The main determinant of life expectancy is age specific death rates of populations. Birth rates and general mortality rates are included as well. These can show us how long the average person in a certain community can be expected to live.

Long- term services and supports (LTSS) include all services and providers that assist in an individual’s daily tasks such as eating, brushing, bathing, cleaning, and taking medications. These services are important because some illness and accidents have made it so that some people need life-long assistance. These services are important to the older generation because many of them may not have families that can tend to them full-time. Many of those utilizing LTSS are baby boomers. This refers to the group of people born in the years after World War II where there was a significant increase in birth rate. America’s health care costs will likely increase as this group of people reach older ages.

  • Life expectancy- How old a person will become
  • Long-term services and supports (LTSS)- Long-term services and supports provide assistance with activities of daily living. 
  • Baby boomers- The group of people born in the years after World War II where there was a significant increase in birth rate.


ASAGING. 2014. Aging in the Community. Retrieved from http://www.asaging.org/blog/aging-community-communitarian-alternative-aging-place-alone

KFF. 2015. Medicaid and Long-Term Services and Supports: A Primer. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/report/medicaid-and-long-term-services-and-supports-a-primer/


Glossary Post 2

This glossary building post is about food. Food is a huge part of health consumerism from all ranges of the spectrum from advertisements, to ingredients, to prices. Understanding what some of these food terms mean can help up make healthier choices, spend our hard earned money wiser, and decipher what these food labels and food companies are trying to sell us.

The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. They are also responsible for advancing the speed at which new medical innovations are made effective. The FDA is responsible to providing recommended daily reference values. These are simply amounts of certain nutrients such as fat, protein, sugar, and carbohydrates that a person should eat in a single day. They are represented on food labels as percentages of daily value (DV). Added sugar is sugar that is added to a food at the table, in the kitchen, or in the manufacturing plant. It is sugar that does not naturally appear in foods and manufacturers add sugar to 74% of packaged foods sold in supermarkets, according to Sugar Science (2017).

  • Added Sugar- Any sugar added in preparation of foods, either at the table, in the kitchen or in the processing plant. This may include sucrose, high fructose corn syrup and others.
  • Food & Drug Administration- Responsible for the safety and security of human and veterinary drugs, products, and devices.
  • Daily Reference Value- Recommendations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the amount of protein, fat, cholesterol and carbohydrates a person should eat in a day. Food labels are based on these numbers, which is shown as “DV%”


Sugar Science. 2017. Hidden in Plain Sight. Retrieved from http://sugarscience.ucsf.edu/hidden-in-plain-sight/#.Win32WJSy8q

Glossary Post 1

Student loan debt can have a huge impact on a person’s finances. The debt can vary depending on the type of loan, scholarships awarded, and the type of school you attend. Private schools normally cost at least twice as much as public schools do, and attending an out-of-state school can also rack up more tuition fees than attending an in-state school. Paying off student loans can be difficult as a new graduate still on the search for jobs. Fortunately, the Institute for College Access and Success provided some tips on how to make the process easier, as well as some things we may not know about in general when it comes to student loans.

A grace period is the time after completion of school that you have to begin making payments to your student debt. Some grace periods vary depending on the loan but most are 6 to 9 months. After this, you have the option of Deferment. This is a way of postponing the payment or reducing the payment amount for a certain amount of time depending on eligibility. With a deferment you may not being responsible to pay the interest that acquires on the loan either. Some people may have more than one source of debt, in which case a consolidation loan may be the right fit. This is a loan in which you can combine the rest of your loans and make one single monthly payment, instead of several payments to different sources. The cons to consolidation loans is that it extends the time of repayment, increasing the amount of interest being paid.

  • Grace period- the time after completion of school that you have to begin making payments to your student debt.
  • Deferment- a way of postponing the payment or reducing the payment amount for a certain amount of time
  • Consolidation loan- a way of combining all loans into one monthly payment with a fixed interest.


TICAS. The Top 10 Student Loan Tips for Recent Graduates. Retrieved from https://ticas.org/content/posd/top-10-student-loan-tips-recent-graduates

Glossary Post 5

Nowadays, we see promotions everywhere about going green, saving the earth, to recycle, and purchase organic foods. We have solar powered buildings and electric cars. Green is the movement to purchase and use sustainable, environmentally friendly, and reusable products and services. I thought this was important to know because I feel like a lot of people and kids think that going green is just recycling more. Another word that relates to green is sustainability. It is the capability to be maintained at a certain level that meets the needs of the present without affecting the needs of the future. Examples of sustainability is solar energy because they don’t use any gases, and reducing water usage. LOHAS is also a new term to me, which stands for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability. LOHAS is a trend that pretty much mean you are going green, and living green. People who are LOHAS buy and use organic products, use hybrid or electric cars, have energy efficient appliances, and practice alternative medicine.

  • Green: sustainable, environmentally friendly, responsible products and services
  • Sustainability: meeting the needs of the present without affecting the needs of future generations
  • LOHAS: trend/movement of going green

Glossary Post 4

While reading through the FDA’s website about prescription drug advertising, I came across a lot of new things that I didn’t know about before on drug advertisements. The FDA stands for the Food and Drug Administration, who is responsible for ensuring the safety of drugs, medical products and devices, cosmetics, tobacco, and food. The FDA also helps public health by spending money for innovations to make medical products safer, more effective and affordable. The FDA label is something I see everywhere, but I wasn’t sure what they did. Another word that was new to me was direct-to-consumer advertising, which are ads published in magazines, newspapers, or commercials that is targeted towards the general audience. These advertisements are different than ones that are in pamphlets and brochures that are given to you at the doctor’s office. This was new to me, because I never gave into thought the types of prescription drug promotion and advertising. With every type of drug ad we see, whether in a TV commercial, or in a magazine, they always show the benefits and risks of taking the drug. There’s a law called fair balance that requires ads to also show the drugs most important risks when they show the benefits.

  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA): responsible for the safety of human and veterinary drugs, products, medical device, food, and cosmetics
  • Direct-to-consumer advertising: a new area of prescription drug promotion in magazines, commercials, or newspapers targeted towards the general audience
  • Fair balance: law that requires ads to show not only benefits of the drug, but also the most important risks

GB #4

Many of us do not know much about illness and where to go to get the right care when we need or for our loved ones. When we have knowledge of some things related with illness and mortality, we could make a good choice. As I was reading about medical mistakes, I was shocked to find out that more people die due to medical mistakes. I used to think differently. There are so many things that people do not about this topic. This article I read called How Many Die From Medical Mistakes In U.S. Hospitals? discussed about the numbers of patients died because of medical mistakes. According to the article, “bad hospital care contributed to the deaths of 180,000 patients in Medicare alone in a given year.”  Deaths of 180,000 patients was only in 2010 and now the number of deaths has greatly increased according to the article. The article stated that medical mistakes is the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S.

Well, when I was reading about California hospital article, I saw this Interactive map where it shows infection rates by hospitals. People can check this map to help them be informed about infection rates by hospitals. As I was reading this article California Hospitals Lose Ground In Quality Of Care, Report Card Shows, I learned that some California hospitals received a C or worse for patients safety. I did not know this information; I’m glad to know. I also read about kidney failure and I found this word I didn’t know, Dialysis. According to MedicineNet.com, Dialysis is “The process of removing waste products and excess fluid from the body.” Once a person’s kidney fails, they require dialysis to help and assist them. This article Geography is destiny in deaths from kidney failure, study shows, there’s less likelihood of getting the right kind of dialysis and there’s risk of dying. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the very last stage of kidney disease; this basically means that the kidney no longer works; therefore, a person might need dialysis to assist them.

  • Interactive map: Used for the public to check infection rates by hospitals according to How Many Die From Medical Mistakes In U.S. Hospitals? 
  • Dialysis: “The process of removing waste products and excess fluid from the body.” according MedicineNet.com
  • End-Stage Renal Disease: Last & final stage of chronic kidney disease; kidney no longer works


Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Geography is destiny in deaths from kidney failure, study shows.” ScienceDaily, 24 June 2015.

Terhume, Chad. “California Hospitals Lose Ground In Quality Of Care, Report Card Shows.” Kaiser Health News.

“Medical Definition of Dialysis.” MedicineNet, http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2980.

“End Stage Kidney Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention.” Healthline, Healthline Media, http://www.healthline.com/health/end-stage-kidney-disease.