Category Archives: glossary

Glossary Building #2

In the Overview of Nutrition PowerPoint the term eating patterns is used to describe food choices. After closely examining and considering the different aspects that go into eating patterns my understanding of the term is not solely dependent on what one person simply wants to eat. Eating patterns include preference, habit or tradition, social pressure, availability, convenience, economy, emotional needs, values or beliefs, attitudes, nutritional value and outside incentives.

Again in the Overview of Nutrition PowerPoint the term food culture is introduced. I was a bit confused with the term and considered the terms independently. Foods meaning any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink, or that plants absorb, in order to maintain life and growth. Then culture meaning the ways we believe, act and think. Together, my interpretation of the term food culture refers to the way we believe, act or think about any nutritious substance that people, animals and plants eat or drink in order to maintain life and growth. Simply put, food culture refers to the way we think, believe or act in regards to food.

In the same powerpoint, Overview of Nutrition, the term portion distortion is used. The term is followed by the question, “How much BIGGER are we eating?” which led me to think about what portion distortion meant. Individually, portion, refers to a helping, fraction or divide. Then distortion refers to misrepresentation or bend. Together, my interpretation of the term portion distortion would then mean the misrepresentation of a helping with regards to food. Basically, in this way our vision of what is an adequate serving or helping size does not accurately reflect what is healthy.


Glossary Building Post – 2

This week’s post was really eye-opening which led to a lot of reading this weekend. From learning about the chemicals in cosmetics to automobile safety recall and the nutrition section on the Center for Science in the Public Interest webpage, I was able to jot down some (what I consider important) glossary terms.

The first term came from the Wal-Mart cosmetics article. Up until 2012, a hazardous chemical known as BPA, was used to make mostly plastic containers to store food, water or hygiene products such as shampoo or lotions. BPA stands for bisphenol-A. According to the mayoclinic and FDA, exposure to BPA can have “possible effects on the brain…” … “additional research suggests a possible link between BPA and increased blood pressure.” (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

If you drive, safety recalls are important! This is when basically, the manufacturer discovers an issue with the vehicle such as a faulty air bag and will repair it free of cost in order to comply with federal safety standards.

Trans fats should be illegal! While there is a complex variety of fats out there, it can be difficult to distinguish which ones are the good ones and which ones are the bad ones. Typically, food labels have 3 different fats: Saturated (BAD!!), Unsaturated (GOOD) and TRANS (THE WORST!). According to the CSPINET (Center for Science in the Public Interest), trans fats decreases your good cholesterol and promotes diabetes. Not only that but “Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health estimate that trans-fat causes 72,000 to 228,000 heart attacks, including roughly 50,000 fatal ones, per year (CSPINET).”

And Finally, DYES! Artificial food dyes are not something you normally think about when you’re out grocery shopping but they are just as harmful to your body because some even pose a risk of cancer.

BPA: A hazardous chemical known as BPA – bisphenol-A; was used to make mostly plastic containers to store food, water or hygiene products such as shampoo or lotions. MayoClinic

Safety Recall: When the manufacturer discovers an issue with the vehicle and will repair it free of cost in order to comply with federal safety standards.

 Trans-fats: “Most of the trans fat Americans consume is artificial trans fat that comes from partially hydrogenated oil. Partial hydrogenation is a process in which hydrogen is added to an oil to make it more solid, like margarine or shortening (CSPINET).”

Artificial food DYES: “Commonly used food dyes, such as Yellow 5 and Yellow 6, and Red 40, pose risks including hyperactivity in children. Some also pose a risk of cancer (like Red 3) and allergic reactions (CSPINET).”


CSPINET. (2017). Food Dyes | Center for Science in the Public Interest. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Oct. 2017].

CSPINET. (2017). Trans Fat | Center for Science in the Public Interest. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Oct. 2017]. 

Mayo Clinic. (2017). Tips to reduce your exposure to BPA. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Oct. 2017].

NHTSA. (2017). What is a Safety Recall? | | NHTSA. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Oct. 2017].

Glossary Building Part 2

When discussing consumer health, these three words pop up when scrolling through the slides in the “birth” PowerPoint. When the word contraception comes to mind, we think of sex and how to be safe about it. Fortunately, there are many meanings to this word which could be using condoms as a contraception or birth control pills. It just depends on what you use that makes this word have many meanings.


Next looking at preconception, there’s a “twist” to that as well. If we look at a poor preconceived health, that means that the parent wasn’t prepared for a birth or chose not to prepare. If we look at good preconceived health, you can see that the birth was well thought out and was prepared to be a parent. Evidence-Based is a word with many meanings as well. In health, we can see that evidence-based is used because there are many ways to express what you’re talking about and with support, you can show how valid your argument using an evidence-based discussion.



  • Contraception


  • Preconception


  • Evidence-Based

Glossary Building Post 2

The terms I have listed below are from the articles that were options to read for this week’s Weekly Post. The first term comes from the article “Lowering Salt in Your Diet” that talks about the impact of sodium. I chose to incorporate this term because of how unusual it may appear to an uninformed consumer. On the nutrition label, there is the percentage daily value section where you can see what percentage of different vitamins, carbs, sugar, etc. that is in that food. However, consumers may not know that more than 20% is considered high as 20% is usually thought of as a low percentage.

The next two terms are from the article “Are Government Regulations Sufficient to Protect the Public from Toxic Chemicals Used in Toys and Other Consumer Products.” The term “voluntary standards” kind of speaks for itself, however, I thought it was interesting to know that the product in question for these standards is usually toys, things that are given to children. The fact that the regulations on these are voluntary means that kids could be in danger, and frankly it is surprising that the parents of the world have not called for stronger regulations. The next term, “safety requirements” is a term that is used lightly in this article. These requirements barely exist and do little to nothing to help with the safety of toys and other consumer products. Toys do not need to be tested for chemical hazards before being put out. That is how something like Aqua Dots were released several years back. When this toy hit the market it was very popular, but since they are so small, kids would accidentally eat them and fall very ill or become comatose.

  • Low vs. High Sodium: Less than 5% on the Daily Value of food labels is low, anything above 20% is high.
  • Voluntary Standards: Standards developed by industry groups that the Consumer Product Safety Commission cannot enforce, leaving consumers to question if products are safe or not.
  • Safety Requirements: Little to none, as there are no requirements for testing for hazardous chemicals for consumer product and toy manufacturers before they are released to the public.

Glossary Building Part 1

The three words I found for my glossary building post were words that I have came across before and words that I have never came across before.

The first word I chose was commodity. Commodity is an important word to have in my glossary because it can mean multiple things. Commodity is defined by “a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee” ( I found this word in the Consumer Health: Health Care Reform PowerPoint on Slide 2. Here commodity is being used saying how health care was a commodity to be bought and sold.

The second word I chose was discourse. Discourse is also another important word to have for my glossary because it is used in a way that is good for people to comprehend. Discourse is defined as “written or spoken communication or debate” ( I found this word in the same PowerPoint but on slide 6. I think it is very important for people to understand different words and different meanings they have. It is very easy for us to just say  talking out loud instead of discourse. But this way makes us smarter by knowing different synonyms.

The third word I found was stifling. Stifling is then again another good word to know. Stifling can be defined as “making one feel constrained or oppressed” ( This word was also found in the Consumer Health: Health Care Reform PowerPoint on slide 7. Here the word is being used talking about a regulation vs. consumer protection. I think it is good for us to know this one as well because it is a great synonym for other words that correlate to the meaning.

Three words:

Commodity: a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee.

Discourse: written or spoken communication or debate.

Stifling: making one feel constrained or oppressed

Glossary post 1

Since I have interest in healthcare as far as knowing enough information at least to be aware of and though I’m not on Medicare or Medicaid, I found the following terms to be interesting.   CMS(centers for Medicare & Medicaid services) so I am not sure if other insurance companies use the same terms.

I found Actuarial Value to be interesting and definition follows:

The percentage of total average costs for covered benefits that a plan will cover. For
example, if a plan has an actuarial value of 70 percent, on average, the consumer would
be responsible for 30 percent of the costs of all covered benefits. However, the
consumer could be responsible for a higher or lower percentage of the total costs of
covered services for the year depending on their actual health care needs and the terms
of the consumer’s insurance policy.    It is important to know this information when you get services.
Here’s my second term under this same category:  Affordable Care Act; these three words were referred to quite a bit on the CBO report.  I learned it is more than just affordability.  The comprehensive health care reform law was enacted in March 2010. The law was enactedin 2 parts: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was signed into law on March 23, 2010 and was amended by the Health Care and Education ReconciliationAct on March 30, 2010. The name “Affordable Care Act” is used to refer to the final,amended version of the law.
And my final glossary word under the marketplace for health insurance is:  Eligibility Determination; I did not realize that one’s eligibility is based on number of factors and there are two federal agencies involved to be a federal funded insurance.
Eligibility Determination:  The Department of Health & Human Services and the Department of Treasury are the two main federal agencies that help determine consumers’ eligibility for health coverage through the Marketplace and insurance affordability programs. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) makes tax decisions related to the premium tax credit and determines eligibility for some exemptions from the individual shared responsibility payment. The Marketplace compares information provided by consumers, like household income and family size, to IRS data to help determine eligibility for advance payments of the premium tax credit and
cost-sharing reductions.
This is a huge article where just the glossary has terms for almost every letter of the alphabet so checked it out if you are interested in writing about other terminology.




Glossary Building Post # 1

Glossary Terms:

  • Market
  • Health
  • Consumer

The terms Market, Health, and Consumer are important in the subject of Consumer Health. All three of these words may seem to be basic terms, but they actually present multiple meanings depending on the context they are used in. As a student of Consumer Health, and a consumer myself, I believe these terms are important for people to understand as they are words that come up often in regards to this subject.

One of the first pages I read in this course talked about the Market in regards to consumer health. When a person mentions the word Market these days there are many meaning that can come to mind. Are they talking about going to a location where products can be bought? Or perhaps they are thinking of ‘the market’, i.e. the stock market or housing market. A market used to simply be a place where you went to buy produce or products, but now it has expanded to encompass many meanings. The word market went from being a noun to being a concept that covers many ideas. I had not really thought about how the meaning of market had changed so much over the years before I read that article.

Health and Consumer are also very important terms as they also encompass multiple definitions depending on their context. Health is not a straightforward word in today’s world. The word health can be used in regards to describing what is believed to be ‘good’ for a person, but does not always encompass its actual meaning. When I think of healthy I think that it should be something good for me generally, but if a consumer does not make smart choices then what is considered healthy may actually be bad for them. For example, foods that are considered ‘healthy’, items that list sugar-free, fat-free, or gluten-free are not always the healthier choice. When looking at healthy choices in food the consumer needs to look at dietary information, ingredients, and make the choice individually if the product actually fits their healthy lifestyle. In regards to the term Consumer, the term could be in context of an individual or a company. This term is important to note because it is seen and thought of every day. People and companies alike are consumers who think “what do people want to buy, intake, have, etc.”.






Glossary Building 1

One of the words I learned from this weeks slides is hegemony. Hegemony is spontaneous or passive consent. In other words, it’s allowing things to happen even if they will not benefit us at all, but simply because we think that things are meant to happen naturally and that’s how things work.’s definition of hegemony is “leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation overothers, as in a confederation.” The definition of this word is so interesting to me because I think hegemony happens to many of us, when it comes to buying food, clothes, and many extra things that we don’t need. We purchase things that we crave, or think we need but later realize we could live without it.

Market justice is the idea that what is fair in the world or in our life is not possible. It is also the idea that our lives is operated like a market – we spend our hard earned money on things we desire. Market justice is important in consumer health because what we spend our money on can also affect our health. It can be medications to benefit our health, or unhealthy foods that do the opposite.

Social justice is the opposite of market justice and is the desired idea that we have in public health. It is the idea that societies are responsible to make sure everyone has fair and equal outcomes, no matter what healthy behaviors they choose to do. On, they describe social justice as, “governmental implementation of laws/rights that provide equal distribution of resources and opportunities, which in effect protects human dignity.”

Glossary Building Post

In the Birth, Birth Options, and Maternal-Child Consumer Issues PowerPoint the term stakeholders is used in the final slide. I was confused as to who these stakeholders are that need to be educated on this area of consumer health. Synonyms for stakeholders are investors, shareholders, backers, sponsors, participants, patrons and interested parties. By these synonyms I understand now that doctors, patients, expectant or future expectant mothers and fathers are considered the stakeholders in birth, birth options and maternal-child consumer issues.

In the Pharmaceutical Industry and Consumers PowerPoint the term detailing is used ponder how we can take control of this. I was interested in why the word included quotation marks around it and followed the link. After following the link detailing refers to outreach education for health care professionals. This is when trained pharmacists, nurses and physicians otherwise known as clinical educators meet with health care professionals to discuss and introduce appropriate therapeutic choices and patient care practices. These trained professionals are the individuals providing the details to health care providers.

In the Babies and Small Children Consumer Issues Power Point the term brand loyalty is used to describe the risks and who is at risk in early childhood services. I was unsure what brand loyalty meant in this context and then defined each word individually. Synonyms for brand are make, product, kind or simply brand name. Loyalty means faithfulness, so together it means faithfulness to a/the make, product, kind or brand name. In this way we do find our loyalties to certain brands like popular brands Burt’s Bees, Babyganics, Johnson’s & Johnson’s, Medela, Munchkin, Fisher Price, Graco, Baby Einstein and so on. We also find our loyalties to certain early childhood services like KinderCare, Bright Horizons, Montessori schools and so on.

Glossary Building Post

After reading over a few slides for this week’s topical post, I came across some terms that I see important. The first term was VBAC from the birth slides. When I saw this, I had no idea what it meant, and frankly, it sounded kind of scary. According to WebMD, VBAC is “vaginal birth after cesarean”(WebMD.). The reason I view this term important is because, I didn’t know that after having a C-section, you must go through what is called a Trial of Labor after Cesarean, TOLAC (WebMD.); in order to be able to have your next baby naturally, but even then, 4 out of 10 women will still need a C-section.(WebMD.)

The second term came from the overview slides generalizability. When I saw this word I had to stop everything I was doing to search for the definition. According to a psychology glossary I found online, Generalizabilty is “another way of saying “ecological validity”; this is the extent to which findings can be generalized to those in natural settings.(” I think this is important in consumer health because once we enter the research side of public health we need to be able to inform consumers how our findings can relate to them in a real life setting.

The Last word is quackery. According to the overview slides, quackery can be defined as “Promotion for the purposes of profit of a false, or unproven, method(OverviewSlides).” I think that this term is important because you want your consumers’ credibility at all times and if you ‘change their oil’ without having the proper knowledge, you are most likely going to ruin their car and your credibility will go down.

  • VBAC: Vaginal birth after cesarean; After having a C-section, you must go through what is called a Trial of Labor after Cesarean, TOLAC (WebMD.); in order to be able to have your next baby naturally, but even then, 4 out of 10 women will still need a C-section.(WebMD.)
  • Generalizability: Another way of saying “ecological validity”; this is the extent to which findings can be generalized to those in natural settings (
  • Quackery: Promotion for the purposes of profit of a false, or unproven, method (OverviewSlides).

Sources “Generalize (Generalizability).” Generalize (Generalizability) Definition |Psychology Glossary,, 2017.

OverviewSlides. “The New Consumer Health – An Overview.”

WebMD. “Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) – Topic Overview.” WebMD, WebMD, 2017,