Category Archives: glossary

Glossary part 1

Glossary Building post part

(1)

In one of our first prompts, we had the opportunity to read slides and answer a prompt on what would interest us the most, and for me that was the slides on Babies and Small children Slides. I mentioned there that my friend has newborns (now 3 month old twins and a toddler), and it is very important for her and for all of us to look after all children. One small change that can benefit an infant or small child is the dishware that is used to feed them. Washington State is the 2nd state to ban BPA from baby bottles and other dishes used for babies. Another change that I personally didn’t think much about was the level of lead in baby toys. I go to the store and think, cute baby toys, and then I either pick it up for a loved one or grab something else. A regulation in 1977 banned high levels of lead being used on children toys, and many toys have since been recalled. So what about the health of a baby when the baby is not a baby anymore? Many parents, as I could only assume, experience a bittersweet moment when their small child goes off to school for the first time. They may ask themselves many questions, and one of them might be, are they being fed? One of the slides (Feeding Older Kids) mentions laws being passed for schools to use local and fresh foods. A quick Google search lead me to a website that compares different policies or parts of policies on foods that are/should be used in schools. It compares the Washington State policies, more specifically the 2010 Revised Code of Washington 28A.210.365 with USDA nutrition standards. This is a neatly organized chart that helps viewers understand where Washington school food falls in terms of health.

BPA- Bisphenol A (BPA) can be found in baby bottle due to the plastic that is used to harden plastics as well as a method of keeping bacteria from contaminating the milk/other foods.

Lead- A natural occurring element that can be found throughout our environment, including inside our homes, which is especially dangerous to children. Children are more likely than not exploring their surroundings, which may expose them to lead through toys (pain from the toys) and dishware.

2010 Revised Code of Washington 28A.210.365 (Food choice, minimum standard)- This policy states that it’s goal, or the goal for Washington State, is to ensure that schools work on changes that will bring healthier food choices to students grades K-12, by 2010. This code also specifies that it will also hope to control the amount of nutrients/fats that should be in the school lunches as well as designing engaging activities for physical education classes.

BPA. Healthy Chidren. Org. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/feeding-nutrition/Pages/Baby-Bottles-And-Bisphenol-A-BPA.aspx

Learn about Lead. EPA.gov. Retrieved from:

https://www.epa.gov/lead/learn-about-lead

RCW 28A.210. 365. Leg.Wa.Gov retrieved from http://app.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.210.365

(2)

As someone who makes several online purchases, especially at the cosmetic stores, I found the prompts on consumer protection and regulations very interesting. It wasn’t necessarily about cosmetics, but I did compare it to my consumption of all sorts of makeup. In this specific prompt I talked about how it is important to basically compare interest rate from different banks before taking out a loan or before buying a house. This made me think about how makeup companies also set their prices based on popularity. What I mean by this is that most companies carry the same makeup products for the most part, so if you don’t do your own comparing, you may end up with two of the exact same product but at different costs. For the protection of the consumer, companies are now adding the ingredient lists to most makeup products if not posting them on their websites. If they weren’t obligated to do so, how many makeup companies do you think could get away with giving us a “cheaply” made good for the price of a “luxurious” one?

 

Consumer protection regulation: regulations designed to protect the interests of the consumer

 

Safety and soundness regulation: ensures that banks operate safely without harming those who use banks.

 

Regulatroy changes– they are made in response to the consumers, but mostly as a response to new developments in the economy and consumer market.

 

Schmidt, J. WIllardson, N. (2004). Banking Regulation: The Focus Returns to the Consumer. Retrieved from https://www.minneapolisfed.org/publications/the-region/banking-regulation-the-focus-returns-to-the-consumer

 

 

(3)

My cousin’s wife is expecting, and she will hopefully be giving birth to my little nephew this upcoming year. After reading the slides on child birth, I found it interesting how new mothers take information and what they buy as new time parents versus parents that have already experienced the birth and care for a child. My cousin and his wife have purchased just about everything imaginable for their baby, and they are sharing baby posts on Facebook left and right. My friend, on the other hand, likes to share anything baby and toddler related, because she has a toddler and newborn twins. I remember that my friend was just like my cousin and his wife when she had her first child, because she didn’t know what to expect. Now my friend has the opportunity to buy products that she absolutely loves like a certain type of baby bottle that does I don’t know what kind of magic, because she has tried several kinds before finding the “right one”. Now I think about all the research that my cousin does and I can only imagine that they are thinking about every little detail including labor, products to buy, and child care after the baby comes home.

 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome– There is a great possibility that mothers who drink while pregnant can give birth to babies with alcohol spectrum disorders such as neurological disorders, vision, hearing, and short attention span.

Healthline.com. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/fetal-alcohol-syndrome

 

Midwife– A health care professional that provides care during labor, delivery and after birth as well. They can provide care from a birthing center or from the mother’s home, whichever makes her the most comfortable during labor.

American Pregnancy.Org. Midwives: Benefits of Having a Midwife. Retrieved from http://americanpregnancy.org/labor-and-birth/midwives/

 

Epidural– anesthesia that blocks pain from a certain part of the body, but does not block out total feeling making it the easiest anesthetic for women during childbirth.

American Pregnancy.Org. Epidural Anesthesia. Using Epidural Anesthesia During Labor: Benefits and Risks. Retrieved from http://americanpregnancy.org/labor-and-birth/epidural/

 

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Glossary Post 5

  1. Pesticide
  2. Herbicide
  3. Sustainability

Pesticide is the overarching term for herbicides, insecticides, and other substances that control pests. Pesticides are often highly debated due to concerns about safety for those consuming the crops but not those picking the crops but that is a whole political debate that I don’t want to start right now.

An herbicide is a pesticide that kills weeds. Often called weedkillers, herbicides can protect crops from weeds as well as anything that the weeds attract including animals, insects, and diseases.

Sustainability is the ability to maintain or stay at a level. Oftentimes, manufacturers and businesses are not sustainable because there is not an equal balance of output and gains. This also applies to the earth. Without sustainable agriculture, the environment becomes too affected by the production and in turn the production becomes affected because their was not enough balance to ensure sustainability.

Glossary Post 4

  1. Life Expectancy
  2. Equity
  3. Equality

Life expectancy is the estimated amount of time that an individual will live. In the United States, the average life expectancy is 78.7 years. Life expectancy will vary by country to country, state to state, even neighborhood to neighborhood. People of color in the US have lower life expectancy than white individuals and each ethnicity has a different life expectancy.

Equity and Equality are often confused. Equity acknowledges that everyone is an individual and has individual needs while Equality treats everyone as if they have the same needs. It is more important to strive for an equitable society than an equal society.

Glossary Post 3

For this glossary post I chose the three words below to define more –

  1. Morbidity
  2. Mortality
  3. Moral Obligation

Morbidity can mean two things. The first is a state of disease or illness. Oftentimes a morbidity is something that will lead to mortality. Morbidity can also be the incidence of an illness in a community. The morbidity rate takes into account the individuals afflicted with the illness and those who are healthy.

Mortality is the ratio of actual deaths to expected deaths. Mortality is often related to death rate. Often times mortality is spoken about when someone has a near death experience that “makes them understand their own mortality”.

Moral Obligations are those obligations that come from a belief of what is right and what is wrong. Most times the obligation arises from ethical beliefs. However, each individual has different moral obligations because everyone’s morals and ethics are slightly different.

Glossary Post 2

For my second glossary post I’ve decided to define and discuss

  1. Epidural
  2. Pre-conception life stages
  3. Healthy People 2020

An epidural is an injection of medication that blocks the transmission of pain impulses, which can assist in making labor more comfortable and bearable for women. An epidural is injected into the lower back during labor.

Pre-conception life stages are the stages of life when individuals think about having a child for the first time or having a child again. During the pre-conception stages, individuals may have genetic histories investigated, they may stop high risk behaviors including smoking an drinking, and they may be tested for any STIs.

Healthy People 2020 is the department of health’s plan to improve health outcomes across different populations throughout the United States. Healthy People 2020 goals include improving vaccination rates and lowering the incidence rate of HIV.

Glossary Post #5

For Glossary Post #5 I came across three words in the DietaryGuidlinesandSugarSlides that I believe is important to know more about. The three words that stuck out to me were Omit, Allergens, and Morality. Although I have heard these words before I have never used them in my personal language, so I would like to know exactly what they mean.

Omit is when you choose to exclude or leave out something important. This can either be a person when you do not want them to be involved or you do not want them to know what you are talking about. This can also be when you do want to exclude something, such as a comment. Many people will use this word when they are referring to something being left out. Such as, “You omitted the most important part of the story in your presentation.”

Allergen is a type of substance that many people are allergic too. It is another term for the common word allergic, which is when your immune system acts abnormally to something. People are allergic to almost everything outside. Including pollen, grasses, dust and some medications. Everyone is different, so not everybody is going to be allergic to one thing.

Mortality is often referred to being associated with death. But also refers to many people be immortal, everybody is going to die one day. Mortality also has to do with the fact that we are not invincible. This is a good word to know as well because it is good to know synonyms for words, especially words that we are not familiar with.

Omit: leave out or exclude (someone or something), either intentionally or forgetfully.

Allergens: any substance, often a protein, that induces an allergy: common allergens include pollen, grasses, dust, and some medications.

Mortality: the state or condition of being subject to death; mortal character, nature, or existence.

Glossary Post 1

The first three terms I decided to define and discuss are

  1. The Affordable Care Act
  2. Social Ecology
  3. Evidence-Based

The Affordable Care Act was passed in 2010 under President Barack Obama. The ACA is often called Obamacare but this is a misnomer and makes the bill more partisan than it should be. The ACA ended insurance rejection due to pre-existing conditions as well as made insurance cover all forms of birth control.

Social Ecology is a social theory that accounts for social, environmental, and economic factors. The theory is often depicted as a venn diagram with each cross-over section representing different ways society can be seen- Bearable, Viable, and Equitable.

Evidence Based medicine is an approach to medical practice that emphasizes the importance of evidence and research in treatment. Evidence based medicine promotes decisions made based on evidence and research rather than beliefs of practitioners.

Glossary Post #4

For Glossary Post #4 I came across three words in the 209PharmaSlides that stuck out to me. It is very important for people to understand what these words mean, being that it is from the Pharma Slides. The three words that I chose were Patented, Stagnant, and Exorbitant.

Patented is an exclusive right that is granted by the government, that is passed to either a manufacturer or an inventor to use, or sell for a certain number amount of years. The most we see of this word “patent”, is in products made by companies. Companies will get a patent on their products to protect them in the long run, in case someone uses their same product idea. In this case, if someone invents a product that is patented, you could go to jail because you are violating the law. Another type of patent we see is used in documents, the document is protecting a right that the person has published.

Stagnant has a lot of different meanings but ultimately means dull, sluggish, or not moving. This can be related to many things: such as a standing pool of water, a swimming pool, or air. It is also characterized by a lack of development, advancement or progressive movement. In the PharmaSlides this version of the word is being used to describe how innovation has become “dull, or sluggish”. I believe that this is an important word to know because it is always helpful to know words and how you can express them differently.

Exorbitant is when you have exceeded an amount or reason. This can also have multiple meanings but results when you are trying to explain something, and you want to use different wordage to explain yourself. Again, I believe that is a good word to know because it is always helpful to know synonyms for words that you have never heard of. Such as this one.

Patent: the exclusive right granted by the government to an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell an invention for a certain number of years.

Stagnant: stale or foul from standing, as a pool of water.

Exorbitant: exceeding the bounds of custom, propriety, or reason, especially in amount or extent; highly excessive.

Glossary Post 5

Taking care of the environment has become increasingly more common over the years. Recycling bins everywhere, solar panels, gas emission standards, extra fees for plastic grocery bags, these are all examples of how going green has changed the way some Americans live. “Green” is a marketing term for any good, service, law, or policy that revolves around being eco-friendly. You may see this is restaurants that provide compostable packaging or cars that claim to use less gas and emit less emissions. Sustainability refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In other words, it means we need to take care of our resources and use them wisely, and what we do use needs to be replaced or reused. Therefore, our future generations will be able to sustain healthy lives as well.

Moral obligation, or what we think we should do. This was a new phrase to me in terms of environmental sustainability. Moral obligation refers to us knowing exactly what needs to be done to make a change or make a choice. This is something that I think we need to take into consideration more because I often find myself over-using a lot of products such as buying plastic straws or getting plastic grocery bags. I know these things contribute to pollution and environmental damage but I still buy it.

  • Green- A marketing term for any good, service, law, or policy that revolves around being eco-friendly.
  • Sustainability- Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
  • Moral Obligation- What we think we should do.

Glossary Post 4

Food has a huge impact on health consumerism which is why the labeling of food is so important. Food labels are regulated by the Food & Drug administration and are required on almost all products sold in your local grocery store. Trans fat is a type of unsaturated fat that is produced industrially by adding hydrogen to liquid oils, making them more solid. “When the Nutrition Facts label says a food contains “0g” of trans fat, but includes “partially hydrogenated oil” in the ingredient list, it means the food contains trans fat, but less than 0.5g of trans fat per serving.” Claiming to have 0g of an ingredient that is in fact in the product is considered to be a health and nutrition related claim. These are claims such as “low fat”, “fat free” “sodium free”, and “sugar free”. They make the product stand out from the rest and make it seem healthier than your other choices. While the amounts may be small, these claims do not mean the ingredient is not present in your food. Because of the confusion, the FDA enforced the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. This act is the most important piece of food labeling legislation in recent history. It creates the standard at which these claims are held at. For example, “good source of fiber” can only be used when the food contain 10%-19% of the recommended daily value.

Trans Fat- A type of unsaturated fat that is produced industrially by adding hydrogen to liquid oils, making them more solid.

Health and Nutrition Related Claims- Claims such as “low fat”, “fat free” “sodium free”, and “sugar free”.

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990- Requires nutrition labeling of most foods regulated by the FDA, and to require that all nutrient content claims and health claims meet FDA regulations.

Source
USDA. 2013. Obesity and Other Health Concerns Lead Food Companies to Step Up Health and Nutrient Claims. Retrieved from https://consuminghealthmatters.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/healthconcernsleadtolabelclaims.pdf