All posts by jmartinezlj

Reflective Prompt

Before this class I had not taken a consumer health class and in taking this class I learned about many key political points in which it has directly affected our daily lives. Among the many articles that I enjoyed reading about how recent health care legislation has changed the way we see healthcare. I learned that health care is particularily a very important issue that needs to be resolved. There are many people that believe the Obamacare is no good and others are trying to find better health care resources. Another important issue that interested me was that of U.S. consumer protection laws and how many corporations have still been able to manipulate the system and the people. I read an article in which corporations state that they add no sugar to items but in reality they use many names that end up containing sugar products. I really enjoyed this class and found many useful articles in which to learn from.

Photovoice: Water Pollution

The issue that I will be focusing on is how it is impacting us as the consumer and how important it is to keep our water clean. Research shows that over half the global population faces a shortage of clean water. What does this mean to the consumer? Well, as consumers we must be willing to take action in not wasting water when it’s not necessary.

Pollution in the water is a major problem in the world considering the fact that there is only a limited amount of water that is drinkable. According to Society (1996) “Freshwater makes up a very small fraction of all water on the planet. While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is saline and ocean-based. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in glaciers and snowfields” (Society, 1996, para. 4). In many cases people as well as our environment need water in order to survive. It is important to keep our water clean and not continue to pollute it. People have to challenge themselves in keeping and conserving what little water we have and in order to do that we must help by not polluting it with garbage and poisons such as lead. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature (2017) “Pollutants like oil, detergents, nitrogen and phosphate from fertilizers and lead can have a tremendous impact on the ecosystem, especially if the water gets polluted. In a lake, for example, it can wreak havoc on the ecological balance by stimulating plant growth and causing the death of fish due to suffocation resulting from lack of oxygen. The oxygen cycle will stop, and the polluted water will also affect the animal’s dependent on the lake water” (World Wide Fund for Nature, 2017, para. 3). There are many choices available to reduce the amount pollution in the world. People must be aware of the different methods to properly dispose of unwanted oils, plastic waste, and lead from ammunition or other sources.


The photos that I took show the amount of toxic pollution and waste that is left behind near or at our lakes and rivers. I decided to photograph a nearby firing range that has a direct water flow into a major lake and a major river that flows straight into the Pacific Ocean. These rivers and lakes are directly being exposed to toxins. Examples include brass that leaves lead which in turn ends up in our lakes and rivers and toxic garbage as shown above. The oil container appears to have been sitting near the river and it was leaking oils into the water (it was disposed of properly when found). The photos presented helped me think about why it is so important to keep our water clean from toxins. I have found that there are many instances in which people leave garbage and toxic waste sitting around which in turn affects our lakes and rivers. Due to these pollutions it affects the ecosystem and in turn affects us.

My experiences of finding and taking photos of pollution within our waters was fairly an easy task. I found that many people do not respect our environment. It may be that they are unware that there is not an unlimited amount of water in the world. I found that the world is covered by about 70 percent of water but only about 3 percent is drinkable. A person must also take into account the ecosystem and how it as well needs water to flourish. It is important that people learn to effectively preserve and take care of our waters and understand what resources are available. According to World Wide Fund for Nature (2017) “Learn where freshwater resources exist; how they are used; and how climate, technology, policy, and people play a role in both creating obstacles and finding solutions” (World Wide Fund for Nature, para. 8).


Apec Water. (n.d.). The Importance of water and Your health. Retrieved July 27, 2017, from

 Society, N. G. (1996). Freshwater Crisis. Retrieved July 27, 2017, from

World Wide Fund for Nature. (2017). Study the effect of pollution on an ecosystem. Retrieved July 27, 2017, from

Glossary Building: Post Four


According to the article National Institute of Justice (2014) “Recidivism is one of the most fundamental concepts in criminal justice. It refers to a person’s relapse into criminal behavior, often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes intervention for a previous crime. Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in re-arrest, reconviction or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner’s release” (National Institute of Justice, 2014, para. 1). I chose this word because it is important to understand what it means and what it entails when dealing with criminal activity. Research has been done throughout the years to calculate and assess why recidivism is so high.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

According to Senson (2016) “CBT is a psychotherapeutic treatment administered by a therapist trained in mental health disorders and specifically in CBT. Patients typically attend a limited number of sessions that focus on a specific problem, helping the patient identify, recognize and change disturbing thought patterns and feelings that are leading to negative or destructive beliefs and behaviors” (Senson, 2016, para. 6).

I chose cognitive behavioral therapy as a glossary word because it is also an important part of consumer health in some aspects. People behave in certain ways because of their different personalities and many suffer from personality disorders. CBT is among one of those treatment methods that can help individuals with cognitive and behavioral problems.


a person who commits an illegal act.

synonyms: wrongdoer, criminal, lawbreaker, miscreant, malefactor, felon, delinquent, culprit, guilty party, outlaw, sinner, transgressor; malfeasant

a person or thing that offends, does something wrong, or causes problems.

Offender in many cases has been found to mean something other than a wrongdoer and a criminal. People often relate the word offender to a sex offender. I find this word interesting because the Washington State Department of Corrections has recently moved away from using the words offenders, inmates, convicts, and similar words. Currently the State of Washington wants the population of incarcerated individuals to be addressed as students or patients.


Offender. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from

Recidivism. (2014, June 17). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from

Senson, A. (2016, January 06). Virtual Reality Therapy: Treating The Global Mental Health Crisis. Retrieved July 24, 2017, from

Glossary Building Post: Three

Distorted: Adjective

Not truly or completely representing the facts or reality. Misrepresenting oneself. They have a distorted view of life.

Twisted, deformed, and or misshapen

Mentally or morally twisted, as with an aberration or bias.

Behavioral Economics: Noun

economic decision-making.

Behavioral economics has to do with people behavior in regards to the decision making and consequences in regards to resources and financial behaviors.


According to Wolski (2017) “Direct marketing refers to promoting a product or service straight from the seller to the consumer, without intermediary advertising such as television commercials, radio ads, or public displays. This form of marketing can be particularly effective for small- and medium-size businesses with little brand recognition and moderate advertising budgets” (Wolski, 2017, para. 1).


Distorted. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2017, from

Wolski, C. (2017). What Is Direct to Consumer Marketing? Retrieved July 21, 2017, from

Finance Prompt Two

In reading “The Public Interest Research Group’s Tutorial on John Oliver’s Retirement Income Episode and the Fiduciary Rule” I understood it more compared to that of the “Investment Advising Company’s Debunking of the Arguments Against the Fiduciary Rule.” According to The Public Interest Research Group’s Tutorial on John Oliver’s Retirement Income Episode and the Fiduciary Rule, “fiduciaries is the legal term for a broad group of professionals who are required to put customer’s interest’s first” (The Public Interest Research Group’s Tutorial on John Oliver’s Retirement Income Episode and the Fiduciary Rule, 2016, para. 1). As a consumer I believe that it does help explain what the positive and the negative aspects of the fiduciary rule. In reading the article I found that if brokers were to act solely in the interests of the client without compensation of any sort they will not work as hard to assist the consumer in reaching his or her financial goals. In this case according to the article The Public Interest Research Group’s Tutorial on John Oliver’s Retirement Income Episode and the Fiduciary Rule, “advisors aren’t currently bound to act in your best interest, they can steer you to make investments that benefit them but might not be the best choice for your retirement savings” (The Public Interest Research Group’s Tutorial on John Oliver’s Retirement Income Episode and the Fiduciary Rule, 2016, para. 2).  Do to the conflicted interests that advisors have with their consumers they make little profit without regard for their clients interest. The Department of Labor attempted to come up with a rule requiring that all advisors handling consumers accounts be bound by the fiduciary rule to act in the consumers best interest. In this case this article provided useful information in regards to the fiduciary rule and how it could potentially have beneficial benefits to consumers but the catch is that the advisors will no longer be able to collect compensation from these accounts which will in turn change the amount of effort they apply to these accounts.


4 Arguments Against the Fiduciary Rule Debunked. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2017, from

Blog. (2016, June 14). Retrieved July 16, 2017, from

Glossary Post: Two


According to Coleman (2017) “A market is defined as the sum total of all the buyers and sellers in the area or region under consideration. The area may be the earth, or countries, regions, states, or cities. The value, cost and price of items traded are as per forces of supply and demand in a market. The market may be a physical entity, or may be virtual. It may be local or global, perfect and imperfect.

Description: What are the different types of markets?

A market can be called the ‘available market’ – that of all the people in the area. Within the available market, there is the ‘market minimum’- or the market size, which will buy goods without any marketing effort. This is the lowest sale that a company could get without any action on its part. In today’s world, this level is sinking ever lower” (Coleman, 2017, para 1-3).

In this case market can also be related to the stock market, supermarkets, and other such services. In the developing years market has been developing its own definitions and many individuals relate to it in different ways.

Market Justice:

According to Budetti (2008) “Individual resources and choices determine the distribution of health care, with little sense of collective obligation or a role for government. Known as market justice, this approach derives from principles of individualism, self-interest, personal effort, and voluntary behavior” (Budetti, 2008, para. 1).

Social Justice:

According to the Article The Market as Part of the Consumer Health Context by Consumer Health it states that “social justice is a basis for most public health efferts, in contrast to market justice, social justice suggests that societies have a responsibility to help ensure fair outcomes for all. In this view, fair outcomes are not based solely on what a person or group earns by choosing healthy behaviors” Consumer health, 2017, para. 17).


Budetti, P. P. (2008, January 2). Market justice and moral compass. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from

Coleman, B. (2017). Definition of ‘Markets’. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from

Consumer Health (2017). The Market as Part of the Consumer Health Context. Retrieved July 20, 2017.


Thinking and Discourse: Prompt Two

In reading the article about the market as part of the consumer health context I found that market, market justice, and social justice have equal the importance when it comes to consumer health. They also have their own definitions and meaning. According to the article, market has many different meanings in regards to peoples views and opinions. In the article it brings up the fact that when people hear market they think of the stock market. In the article it goes on to talk about how there are many other types such as what I mentioned above (market justice & social justice). Market justice and social justice are two different ideas and they help understand different views about consumer health.

Market justice is found to be related to people who are financially comfortable and have  earned their comfort in the world of consumer health and the people who are less comfortable have earned that situation in life. A persons own lifestyle and choices are responsible for the negative and positive effects. In this case regulations play an important role but some corporations find it difficult to sell their products. In conclusion market justice can be seen as dominant over social justice.

Social justice in the other hand also has its own meaning in the consumer health realm. Social justice defers form market justice because social justice seeks to make all outcomes fair for everyone. In this case policies and procedures it what helps make this happen. According to the article The Market as Part of the Consumer Health Context, “in this view, fair outcomes are not based solely on what a person or group earns by choosing healthy behaviors, rather, they are actively fair, based in policies or processes that allow for or provide equitable benefits and risk of harm to all.”

In my response to this if I had to choose among market justice and social justice I would be right in the middle. In many cases I believe in self-determination, self-discipline, benefits based solely on personal effort, and I have a strong obligation to the collective good. In understanding the types of markets and where you stand can better help you make a positive decision when it comes to consumer health.


Consumer health matters (2017) “The Market as Part of the Consumer Health Context”

Food Matters: Prompt One

What information is new to you as an eater?

Information that is fairly new to me as a consumer of snacks is that almost everything that I consume on a daily basis contains a large quantity of sugar. I have always understood that sugar is not the greatest but I paid it no mind. According to the article “Hidden in Plain Sight” by sugar science the unsweetened truth “there are at least 61 different names for sugar listed on food labels. This include common names, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, as well as barely malt, dextrose, maltose and rice syrup, among others” (Sugar Science the Unsweetened Truth, 2017, para. 3). In this case the FDA does not require manufacturers to include total added sugar just the total sugar content. According to the article men are not supposed to exceed 9 teaspoons of sugar, females are not supposed to exceed 6 teaspoons. Snacks in this case contain many servings of sugar and according to the article “The Snackification of Everything” by Akst “we gravitate toward snacks because they’re fast, easy and require little commitment” (Akst, 2017, para. 6). In reading these articles I have found that even healthy food can contain a high level of sugar content.

How concerning is this information and what might you do with it, either for yourself or someone you care about?

This information is very concerning considering I use approximately 2 teaspoons in my coffee every morning. Throughout the day I have about two cups of coffee accounting for 4 teaspoons of sugar leaving me with 5 teaspoons of sugar that I have left over. In reading this article I have found that sugar has many names not just sugar. When I walk into a store I typically walk down the snacks isle and pickup a couple of candy bars amounting to 44 grams of sugar total. Understanding the impact and staying informed will help reduce the amount of snacks and sugar consumed.

What policy decisions appear to affect people’s choices and health outcomes around your area of concern?

Currently the FDA is working on considering revising the current label design by addressing the way manufactures measure size and the amount of sugar added. Other policies and regulations that have helped with addressing the food industry is that of the Food and Drug Administration. Also According to Martinez (2013) “in the early 1990’s Congress passed the most significant piece of food labeling legislation Education Act of 1990. This legislation established lebeling regulations that require nearly all packaged products to carry the Nutrition Facts label. The regulations, which are implemented and interpreted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, also identify which voluntary HNR claims are allowed and under what circumstances they can be used” Martinez, 2013, para. 3).

If people are less well informed than you, what do you think their responses might be when you tell them about this information?

It is my belief that once people learn about the information and resources I have provided they will begin to understand that it can and will affect their health. The very food they eat can affect them. In this case it was found that even healthy food contains an unhealthy amount of sugar. Many manufactures try to confuse their consumers by using names other than sugar to confuse people that purchase their products. Many corporations pay stores a large amount of money to keep their products near the isles while people pay for their food so that temptation or even a craving can make people buy their unhealthy products.


Akst, D. (2017). The Snackification of Everything. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from

Hidden in Plain Sight. (2017). Retrieved July 19, 2017, from

Martinez, S. (2013). Obesity and other Health Concerns Lead Food Companies to Step up Health and Nutrient Claims. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from

Challenge: Honoring Choices

In reading the FAQ page of the Honoring Choices website I spoke with my significant other about what my options are hypothetically if something were to happen. I currently work in law enforcement and prior I worked with the Department of Corrections.  During my time at the Washington State Department of Corrections I was involved in multiple riots where many inmates suffered life threating injuries. In this case It was not a simple conversation to have with your significant other if something were to happen. I simply asked what do you think would be the best option if something happened to me while in the line of duty and I was left in critical condition and unresponsive? It was a weird question to bring up briefly. We spoke about my life insurance, the Physician Order for Life Sustaining Treatment, a durable power of attorney, and a living will. Before reading this article I did not really think about what could happen or how could I take care of my loved ones once I’m gone. Many of these issues are brought up because being in the line of work that I’m in I want was is best for my community as well as what is best for my family. In my own opinion this challenge post was really informative and provided information that I had not taken into consideration.

Photovoice: Pollution in the Water

The topic I chose for my photovoice is that of pollution in the water. The issue that I will be focusing on is how it is impacting us as the consumer and how important it is to keep our water clean. Research shows that over half the global population faces a shortage of clean water. What does this mean to the consumer? Well, as consumers we must be willing to take action in not wasting water when it’s not necessary. The following questions will be answered:

How healthy is it?

What choice/s do I have?