Pre-existing condition: “a health problem you had before the date that new health coverage starts.” This has been a major issue for recent health care legislation. The A.C.A. required insurance companies to accept those with these conditions, among other things.
Risk pool: “Risk pooling is also known as health insurance, which is a group of persons contributing to a common pool, usually held by a third party. These funds are used to pay for all or part of the cost of providing a defined set of health services for members of the pool.” Seeing as how different people are expected to cost the insurance company different amounts over time, customers are sorted into pools of different risk levels.
Addiction: “Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors.”